Tuesday, December 14, 2010

5 More Aspects of Emotion Writers Need to Know – Expectations

The biological processes that generate emotions depend upon the production of expectation states and their subsequent release. Below I discuss five ways these states determine how we feel, write and impact our readers.
1) Suspense – Unfulfilled Expectation state. One of the most powerful tools a writer has is to keep their reader in a state of suspense. Have an event occur but delay its conclusion. Leave the outcome in suspension. Once you have done so you can increase the tension by adding to the importance of the suspended event. Raise the stakes. One of the best ways is to hint at possible failure modes and their dire consequences if the event concludes badly. The longer the expectation is open, and the more you raise the stakes, the more important it is that you have the ultimate outcome (Release of expectation) have a powerful, dramatic effect on the course of the story.
2) Surprise – Missed Expectation state. When we do anything we subconsciously expect that our proximate world will behave the way we expect. If we go to start our car and it won’t turn over we are surprised, but then we realize we left the lights on etc…In writing we use surprise much more provocatively to jar the reader, and keep them riveted with significant plot twists. The best twists are those that are not random, require the most mental energy to readjust our expectations and release the strongest emotions. If there is a killer in the closet he has a reason to be there (The butler is actually an heir, the police officer is actually the killer and the victims did him wrong as a child, etc…). A good plot twist will often add suspense as the reader has to readjust to the new situation and a whole new set of expectations.
3) Sadness, Disappointment – Negative Outcome of a Positive Expectation state or Negative Outcome of a Negative Expectation state. In writing, character behavior has to be active, i.e. they have to have strong expectations and put their heart into their outcomes. In life bad things happen often at random. In writing when something bad happens it must affect the story. This is best done through expectations and builds on basic surprise. If a character loses a job it is much more dramatic if they are called into the office expecting a raise, but instead they are fired, than if the company randomly decided to close the plant. Expecting bad and getting bad is depressing but not as dramatic as surprise of failure. Expectation should signal strong desires and needs. When these are not fulfilled strong negative emotions are felt and the characters are left shattered. Handled properly this will illicit strong emotional reactions from the reader.
4) Happiness, Satisfaction – Positive Outcome of Negative Expectation state or Success of a Positive Expectation state. Again, having an expectation state surprised, requires the most energy and generates the strongest emotions. When expecting the worst and having the day suddenly saved releases the greatest amount of positive energy. This is why just before the climax always have the darkest moment AKA crisis.
5) Frustration – Unfulfilled Expectation state. Like suspense an event is not concluded, but in the frustrated state the suspense is held too long for the importance of the outcome. Another source of frustration is to have too many unsuccessful attempts to conclude the event. The net result is an unhappy reader.

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

5 Steps to Writing 30K Words per Week

I have developed a new approach to lightening fast writing. By my previous technique I spent nearly two months preparing a detailed scene by scene outline and characterization prior to writing. That effort proceeded at ~ 10K words per week and felt constricting. Below is a breakdown of my new approach that results in ~30K words per week and a whole lot of fun.
1) Idea conception.
2) Characterization. I generated detailed character sheets including 25-50 descriptors taken from my September 6, 2010 post, ‘Words to Write By’ on this Blog.
3) Manuscript backbone. Instead of a scene by scene outline I began with just 12 major plot points including the inciting incident, the crisis, and climax. In the next step I expanded this guide.
4) Brainstorming. My October 5, 2010 post, ‘Work Your Mind, Idea Creation’ from this Blog outlines methods of brainstorming, which are the key to this process. Briefly, brainstorming is traditionally composed of four parts, lots of ideas - the more the better, no editing until you are through brainstorming, acceptance of out of the box ideas, and combining ideas. I asked myself 'What's a lot of ideas?' and came up with the nice round number of 1,000. The ideas fell into two categories, the vast majority were Action - e.g., 'Jasmine choked on a bowl of rice' and the rest Theory - E.g. 'Write good.' Next I placed the Action ideas chronologically between the appropriate plot points. Here I edited, combined or removed some ideas finding that I had redundancies. When I repeat the process for my next ms I will make a habit of reading my idea list in progress to avoid duplications. The theory ideas I read and printed out for reference. The whole process of prep took about a month from inception. My new ‘outline’ was loose, and I generated some additional ideas where the plot point seemed scarce. On to the writing.
5) Writing 30K words per week. My November 23 post from this Blog, ‘8 Tips for Writing in the Flow’ details a writing method based on letting go the confines of your hesitant and doubting inner voice and unleashes a torrent of words. What allows this to occur is described in the post including writing with passion, and without distraction or ‘thought.’ Another key is the seed of this passion and that is where the 1,000 ideas comes into play. Pick your idea, think of your characters, your plot points, strike an attitude and explode. Run with the idea as long as you are flowing, as soon as you feel yourself ‘thinking’ excessively pick another idea or jump to an idea you came up with on the fly. Keep writing in the flow. I do this in two, three hour blocks per day at a rate of ~ 800 words per hour. I find very early in the morning and then late in the day works best for me. The result of this form of writing is extremely freeing and at first blush will need more editing than my old style of writing, but with the months saved writing at 30K it is well worth it for the creative freedom. The old way had me writing, the new way expresses me.

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

8 Tips for Writing in the Flow

What is the flow? The flow is the special state when you let go of brain chatter, worries, and yourself so you can simply write. Your mind becomes an instrument that plays.

1) Don’t Think – Don’t Edit: Writing in the flow requires that words stream out of your ‘No thought’ mind. Our inner voice, AKA executive function, AKA ‘Should I write another line about the poodle?’ will stop the flow dead in its tracks. Stopping to think about a word, or a whole paragraph gets you out of the flow and into the slow. Save all of your editing for when you have finished your writing session or better still when you have finished your manuscript. Another roadblock to creative flow writing is distraction, such as day dreaming, pondering, and worry. Let it go.

2) Passion - Get Angry: One of the most important aspects of writing in the flow is having a steady stream of ideas at the ready to pour out of you. High emotional content stores energy and links memories. Anger is one of the best emotions for ramping up brain energy that wants to burst out. Think of a social injustice or a personal injustice until you feel your ire peak and then let it rip. Anger at a situation in your novel or even a character can also serve to charge your brain with a flood of ideas. Additionally, any emotion that gets you to feel passionate will get you writing from the gut. In a passionate state you will be typing as fast as you can as the ideas race into your mind.

3) Calm: The Alternative to emotional writing is getting calm, word Tai Chi. The idea here is that without stress and worries to clog your creative juices you will be able to flow. The key is keeping anxiety and other brain blockers at bay. You want to let go and flow. Do it in words.

4) Music: Having music playing while your writing has at least three ways to help get and keep you in the flow: First, music itself flows and the background sonorous environment helps carry you along with musical flow. Second, music is a great way to block out noise distractions. I play it loud enough to block out even the phone. Third, music helps reduce stress and tension, which are the arch enemies to flow writing.

5) Spell Checker: Most people write in MS Word, which has the feature to check spelling and grammar while you type. Helpful? Not for the flow. Turn the feature off. You do not need red or green underlining constantly saying ‘Wrong!’ while you write. It almost forces you to edit as you go, which is a no-no.

6) Space and Time: Crucial to being able to flow write is feeling secure about your writing time and space. The best way to do this is have a designated computer that will be free of other uses during your designated time. Having a nice writing environment (Music, Plants, Pictures, Windows, etc…) is all conducive to flowing. Knowing you have a block of time set aside takes pressure off, especially if it takes you a while to get in the flow.

7) Read in the Flow: What is flow reading? Just like flow writing you do not use your executive function for judgment. You just read. No daydreaming, no criticism, no pondering. Save that for the end of the chapter. Why? You want your brain to build a store house of literary building blocks. Subconsciously you are remembering humorous constructions, modes of suspense, dramatic tension, etc…You do not want to copy the work but learn from it to help you flow. When a thought does pop in your mind about the book or anything else that is fine, make a note if need be, but then jump back into the flow reading.

8) Write, Write, Write: The one obvious mandate is writing and writing a lot. Nanowrimo is an excellent exercise for writing in the flow. Write often and consistently. If you find yourself out of the flow by thinking, worrying etc…just dive back in until you forget who you are. Being in the flow and writing without the ego or self will result in your best work. So flow.

Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Emotional Importance, POV and Impact Description

In today’s world of immediate gratification reader’s no longer have the patience for pages upon pages of description. An optimized way to describe settings, people, and situations with impact is presented here. The basic idea is that descriptive detail should be allocated based on the emotional importance it has from a character’s POV. An emotional salience (importance) map is a better way to represent our perceived world. The map can be thought of as a modern art representation of the scene at hand. That is, if a fresh bouquet of red roses is sitting on a table, the bouquet in the map might be the equivalent of 5 feet high and everything else in the room dwarfed. How does this apply to description? The proportion of the salient features, i.e. the roses, relates to the amount of detail you expend on the item in the scene’s description. The key is that this depends on each character’s unique POV and their emotional state.

Take the generic description of a room - two large windows, a grandfather clock, a side table, a sofa and some paintings on the walls. In the room is a young woman pacing, looking out the windows, frowning at her reflection, and checking the grandfather clock every thirty seconds. Using her ‘importance’ POV and the amount of needed descriptive detail is greatly skewed towards the windows and the clock and the image of time and emotions including anticipation, love, anxiety, fear... The sofa, side table and paintings have shrunk or disappeared from her POV and likewise might even be omitted from the description of the room. Now reggae music and incense could heighten the mood. Actual description must have specific details. Here I want to focus on the framework of emotion based proportions of those details. Note; not all description must be emotion driven, some might serve the plot such as the woman making a mental note that Uncle Maynard’s harpoon gun needs dusting.

Ten minutes later a man is shown into the same room by the woman and she dashes off to fetch some drinks. The man immediately closes the blinds thus eliminating the windows from his importance map, and then takes a good look at one of the paintings to use as a conversation piece, but what dominates his importance map is the sofa. With emotions of anticipation, lust, perhaps love he checks it for comfort, size, arranges the pillows.

Thus, we have the very same ‘linear’ room viewed by two people and the ‘non-linear’ POV of each is completely different. In a very real sense they are in different worlds. It is the importance map for each character’s POV that a writer’s descriptive effort (details, imagery, metaphors etc.) must focus. Remember, our own personal salience maps are instantiations of the world and are non-linear. The non-linearity comes from our emotion system, which is vital to our survival and well being. Quite often in life and fiction conflict arises from improperly derived salience.

Now the woman returns to the room and her importance map focuses on the closed blinds and the man comfortably lying back on the couch. Although you write from a single point of view you must imagine each character’s POV. Here the man is focusing on the couch and the drinks. With two different ‘importance’ POVs you have conflict. Will the woman open the blinds furthering the conflict or kick off her shoes? That is up to you and your own salience map.

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

5 Properties of Memory Writers Need to Know

It’s all memory. Memories are the raw materials that a reader uses to instantiate a novel in their mind. Here I give 5 examples of how understanding memory, its capacity, form and function is key to writing effective fiction.
1) The way we organize our writing should take advantage of the ways memories are organized in the reader’s brain; whatever comes last is remembered best (What have you done for me lately?), followed by whatever came first (First impressions), and finally everything in between (It better be interesting). This applies to sentences, paragraphs, scenes, chapters and the novel as a whole. There are exceptions of course (e.g., Shower scene in ‘Psycho’), but remember the order last, first, middle and you will be doing okay.
2) The brain has evolved to organize information based on similarity. Avoid straining your reader needlessly, so do not give two characters names that start with the same letter, sound or even rhyme (E.g., Tom and Tim or Tim and Jim).
3) Reader’s memory is far from perfect, but at the same time writers loathe to repeat information. A balance must be struck; if a character returns after a long absence a small reminder of their role in the story is probably in order and appreciated. Similarly, for the reader to build a strong visual image of the main characters it is necessary to describe them more than once. On the other side we can give our characters faulty memory systems and have them omit vital information or confabulate non-existent events (Fill in details that did not occur, but are usually the way the character would like them to be. Call it subconscious lying).
4) Information in the working memory of the brain has strong competition for limiting space. For example, a human mind can only keep about 7 different things ‘on line’ in working memory at a time. I am not talking about prepositions, but stuff like a baseball, banyan trees, pomegranates, Hawaii, Chardonnay, a Schnauzer, and Stacy. Who is Stacy? I do not know, and that mystery adds to my memory load. Anyway, seven things per conceptual unit is probably enough before moving on to the next.
5) Memories are linked. This is the idea behind free association; how are our memories organized? A writer can go on for paragraphs to describe a setting, but this ultimately just removes the reader’s ability to fill in (imagine). If we think of words or phrases as fishing lines then such a description might only bring back one fish per line, but a poet must bring back a whole school at a time. How? Imagery links multiple memories and emotional images bring up memories with great salience and valence. Thus, to return to a main point from my last post, ‘show’ do not ‘tell,’ especially with emotionally charged images, and the reader will bring your words alive in full.

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

5 Aspects of Emotions Writers Need to Know

Emotions are key to expression, conscious states, decision making, creativity, and the core of our being. The ability to ‘move’ our readers, to connect, to entertain, etc. requires writers to master the expression and transferal of emotional states. The following aspects of emotions are laid out for that purpose.
1) Brain state or Mood: Without going into the depths of electrochemical details lets stick with the effects of mood. We all know what moods are, but there is an important aspect to mood that writers need to know: Moods are resistant to change. Someone in a bad mood will not react strongly to good news while they are likely to overreact to bad news and vice versa. Having a character suddenly jump from mood to mood will make them seem improbable or appear to have a ‘mood’ disorder.
2) Feeling: Emotions: happy, sad, angry, etc. are all states of consciousness that a reader can actually physically experience, but it takes effort. The key is that if it is your intention to have a ‘happy’ reader you must do more than write the word ‘happy.’ Instead, you have to create a set of humorous, amusing, joyous, etc. events and atmosphere that makes your protagonist believably act happy and your empathizing reader experience happiness. Certainly you can make your reader happy without empathy, but it sure helps.
3) Body language: Emotions have associated forms of physical display. We laugh and smile when we are happy. Likewise we frown and cry when we are sad, I don’t, but some do. The key to body language is that it is a much more effective way to ‘show’ an emotional state than to ‘tell,’ e.g., ‘Tears streaked...’ vs. ‘She was sad.’
4) Emotional behavior: Another way to ‘show’ an emotional state, and make it visceral is to have your characters do emotional things. For example have them throw a chair, slam a door, make a rash decision, give a high five, hide under the covers… Again ‘showing’ gets the reader into the action, and feeling the emotion.
5) Emotional Dialog: How people say what they say. Again, ‘show’ the emotion by what is said, and not by what is ‘told.’ “How am I? Ice cream cones with rainbow sprinkles Daddyo.” Vs. “I’m okay.” The ways we write dialog should give our character’s voice richness, depth, and ‘identifiable’ feelings that get readers to gladly suspend disbelief and feel the love.

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

10 Characters with Character

The following is a list of memorable additions to any story. A common thread within all of us keeps drawing us to these characters. Archetypes? Who cares. Make them your own and put ‘em in. They are great and belong to the world.

1) Grand Dame – The world is her oyster and she wants to bring you along for the ride. She has no time to bother with laws or customs as she laughs her way through adventures. A life of wild experiences in the unrelenting pursuit of fun.

2) Outcast – Shunned by their peers the Outcast does not conform, and leads a richer life along the way. Perhaps they know the best underground rock bands or read poetry in the woods under the moonlight. The key is that their seemingly skewed way of looking at the world is the right way to see what’s going down.

3) Moxie – Sassy, Saucy, irreverent and irresistible.

4) Mystic – Old man/woman with secrets and wisdom, perhaps a shaman, who somehow knows what is transpiring in the story. They have knowledge or magic to aid in the struggle.

5) Hell or High Water – The friend who will be there no matter what. Usually this friend is mired in problems of their own. Death of this friend is perhaps the most devastating blow.

6) Weebol – The character that can’t be kept down no matter how many times they’ve been knocked over. They may waver, but they never give up, never.

7) Fish Out of Water – The ‘farmer’ in the ‘big city’ or the ‘businessperson’ on the ‘farm.’ Whatever the juxtaposition, the characters end up learning from one another, but not until after their drastically different points of view have collided on numerous occasions.

8) Legend – Word of their great deeds precede them. Maybe they are down on their luck and disappoint or maybe they are just tired of having to live up to expectations. Usually at least one character already worships the Legend. Perhaps it is enough the Legend passes on what they know or they perform one last time...

9) Artist – Quirky, free spirit, maybe too attractive for their own good. The artist has a vision and wants to be understood, but usually they are lost in their own world. Circumstance or another character must release this world.

10) Evil Genius – A character so cunning that the protagonist is extended farther than they ever dreamed. The Evil Genius has an edge; they don’t have to play by the rules, laws or acts of decency. They perhaps know science or medicine and are on the loose, so look out!

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

'Your Point' The Interview

Writer: Len Bogarad
Interviewer: Skipper Cochran

Cochran: Let me just say congratulations on the completion of your latest opus.
Bogarad: Thank you ever so much.
Cochran: I hear you have an excerpt for us, delicious, but lets leave that to the end. Now straight to the point; what is your novel about?
Bogarad: It is a play. I am a playwright damn it!
Cochran: So sorry. I shall indeed rephrase; what is your play about?
Bogarad: Everything.
Cochran: Could you be a tad more specific? Perhaps the log line, throw in the protagonist and even the main conflict. You know if you keep it under 25 words it would go marvelously as the first line of a query letter.
Bogarad: That which is maximally random cannot be condensed.
Cochran: You are trying to sell this play, aren’t you?
Bogarad: Are you mocking me?
Cochran: So sorry. Let us move on.
Bogarad: Let’s

Cochran: So what are you trying to say?
Bogarad: Say? I am the author not an actor!
Cochran: No what is the point you are trying to make. The very point that you will prove in your climax, the same point every single scene has been building towards!
Bogarad: What on earth are you talking about?
Cochran: Does your play have a theme?
Bogarad: The human spirit is indomitable.
Cochran: Jolly good!
Bogarad: You like?
Cochran: Ever so much.
Bogarad: Good. I am glad.

Cochran: Now, how are you trying to make your audience feel?
Bogarad: Seeking butterflies in the wind.
Cochran: What?
Bogarad: Confused.
Cochran: Why yes I am.
Bogarad: No I am trying to make my audience feel confused.
Cochran: Right! But in the end all is made clear right old boy!
Bogarad: No. Why?

Cochran: Very well. Who comprises your target audience.
Bogarad: Everyone.
Cochran: Now you can be more specific than that can’t you?
Bogarad: I can. Comparative Lit majors who have a thing for chocolate chip cookie dough and Samuel Beckett.
Cochran: Of course.

Cochran: So to finish up, what has inspired you?
Bogarad: Endings.
Cochran: Endings?
Bogarad: For example the end of Mann’s ‘The Magic Mountain’ where the hero, Hans, suddenly leaves the sanatorium and ends up on a battlefield where he disappears into the mist. Of course I am thinking what effing kind of crap ending is that, but just before I launch the book across the room I realize, ‘He is off the mountain and back in the fight. It doesn’t matter if he lives or dies, wins or loses he chooses the struggle even without knowing what lies ahead.’
Cochran: You live in seclusion don’t you?
Bogarad: I am a playwright damn it!
Cochran: So you say.
Bogarad: Well here is an excerpt of the final section of the final scene of the final act of my latest endeavor.

From ‘Your Point’
Richard, Vivien and Elizabeth in a darkened room.

Richard: What gives?
Vivien: I am traveling through time on frequent flier miles.
Richard: Isn’t everyone?
Vivien: Your point?
Richard: Where is Elizabeth Joy?
Elizabeth: I am here flickering in and out of existence.
Richard: That is a strobe light.
Elizabeth: Your point?
Richard: I want an answer!
Vivien: From whom?
Richard: Both of you.
Elizabeth: I will do what ever Vivien does.
Vivien: We cannot marry you Richard. You live in the past.
Richard: Your point?
Elizabeth: He’s taking it well.
Vivien: True, and he can open tightly sealed jars.
Elizabeth: Yes, but you and I can do the same with the handle of a butter knife or even a fork if we are desperate.
Richard: Vivien, you know I love you.
Vivien: You say that to everyone.
Richard: Your point?
Vivien: Lets keep things status quo.
Elizabeth: Yes, no need to rock the boat.
Vivien: Quite right.
Richard: But we’ve only just met.
Vivien: Your point?

Curtains close.

‘Your Point’ by Len Bogarad

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Work Your Mind - Idea Generation

Always ask ‘What if?’
For Example:
What if Mr. Memory lost his hand?
What if Mr. Hand lost his memory?

The more ideas you can generate the more likely you will land upon a good one (Quantity breeds Quality) - Sounds pretty good
Delay Criticism: Do not judge ideas until after you have generated your share. Perhaps you will let simmer an idea that at first glance is not obviously useful, but lo…
Welcome unusual ideas – Out of the box (You have read this far so this shouldn’t cause you problems)
Combine ideas (Power of Association)
-Derived from Osborn, ‘Applied Imagination’

A conclusion that necessarily follows from a set of premises.
For Example:
All men are fascinating
Joe Bob is a man
Joe Bob must be fascinating
(Perhaps my first premise needs some work, but you get the drift)

An extension of knowledge: An educated guess: Not always true
For Example:
I have only seen fat people at McDonalds, thus all McDonalds’ customers are fat
One slight adjustment makes the fallacious statement quite useful ‘thus I should likely find a fat person at McDonalds.’

Start at the end and work backwards. Why? It’s fun damn it!

Insert randomness
Flip a coin
Care to dance? I am taking my driver’s exam. Your point?

Free associate
Free Wild Reckless Necklace Pearl Jam

Observe (With a quiet mind)

Engage (Remember: Flu Shot, Antibacterial hand lotion, Airborne)

Read, Read, Read

Meditate, probiotics, strolls in the park, long showers, call your friend Skip, listen to John Cage recordings…

Take tons of notes

Tuesday, September 28, 2010


Life is defined by high water and low water moments, twists and turns each etched into our being. Books are no different, good books. While reading, certain moments in the story can literally upend our minds and hearts. While writing, the successful execution of such moments develops the character, defines a scene, sends a rush, and makes the novel. Below are examples of some such moments.

Just prior to the climax you experience a moment of awe; the hero has a chance to succeed and you even have a feeling as to how. The key is the feeling. Perhaps something from the beginning of the book, such as a unique ability, stirs in the back of your mind. You begin to tingle with anticipation. The author had better come through.

The hero’s greatest ally suddenly dies/killed. Stricken you read on in a fog of disbelief. The sacrifice must not be in vain.

A major plot twist at the climax can make or break the story. Better to omit than deliver the obvious or the unbelievable.

The moment you realize the true stakes of the story.

The lovers are united/The lovers are torn apart.

The moment a story becomes fantastical (i.e., the laws of nature are abandoned).

You grok what the author is trying to say.

You unravel a mystery, solve a puzzle, or collapse upon a scheme.

The old standby; a mysterious character suddenly emerges as an unexpected ally. I admit I still like this one.

The situation becomes so dire you find yourself actually thinking how can this ever be resolved for the good?

Clearly there are many more moments that serve as watershed events in the life of a novel. I have listed a few that as a reader and writer I keep in mind. I hope writers will think in ‘moments’ as well as arcs etc.

Monday, September 6, 2010

Words to Write By

The following is a list of approximately 500 words to help generate ideas, images, mood, character and conflict. (Shown is the Rosetta stone)

Absinthe, Absolution, Abysmal, Absurd, Acclimatize, Accomplice, Accursed, Acolyte, Adept, Adieu, Adore, Adroit, Adulterate, Aerial, Affluent, Aflame, Afraid, Aghast, Agile, Agoraphobia, Akimbo, Alabaster, Alfresco, Allure, Altruistic, Ambitious, Ambivalent, Amperage, Amplitude, Analogue, Anarchist, Androgynous, Anemic, Angelic, Anguish, Annihilate, Antediluvian, Antipathy, Aphrodisiac, Apostate, Arboreal, Arcane, Ardent, Aristocrat, Arouse, Astute, Asylum, Asynchronous, Atrophy, Attrition, Audacious, Auxiliary, Azure, Bacchanalian, Ballistic, Barbaric, Bastion, Bedevil, Beguile, Beholden, Belligerent, Benevolent, Berserk, Besmirch, Bestial, Betrayal, Bewitch, Bizarre, Blanched, Blossom, Blush, Bohemian, Boisterous, Bourgeois, Brash, Bravado, Brilliant, Brine, Brinkmanship, Brooding, Brutish, Bulbous, Cacophony, Cagey, Cajole, Candid, Capricious, Carnage, Carnal, Carouse, Casualty, Cavalier, Celibate, Cerebral, Chameleon, Charismatic, Charitable, Charming, Chaste, Citadel, Clairvoyant, Coherent, Concoct, Conduit, Confident, Conflict, Conjugal, Conjure, Connote, Connubial, Conscientious, Conscious, Consensual, Considerate, Conspiracy, Consul, Consummate, Contagious, Contempt, Contraband, Contrary, Conundrum, Conversant, Convulse, Cool, Copacetic, Corollary, Corrosive, Coup D’état, Courageous, Courtesan, Crystalline, Curvaceous, Cynical, Dauntless, Dazzling, Deadly, Debacle, Debase, Debauch, Decadent, Deceptive, Decoy, Decrypt, Deduce, Defiant, Degenerate, Degradation, Delightful, Delirium, Delusional, Dementia, Demur, Denouement, Depraved, Deranged, Derision, Desiccate, Despise, Despondent, Detest, Deviant, Devilish, Devise, Devotion, Diatribe, Digress, Dilapidated, Dilettante, Direct, Disappear, Discover, Discrete, Disgrace, Disgusting, Disheveled, Disturbed, Diversion, Dogmatic, Duplicitous, Dynamic, Dynasty, Earnest, Eccentric, Ecstasy, Effeminate, Egalitarian, Egotistical, Egregious, Elegant, Elitist, Elliptical, Eloquence, Elusive, Elysian, Emasculated, Empathic, Enable, Enchant, Encore, Encyclopedic, Endorphin, Enlightened, Enthrall, Enthuse, Entropy, Entwine, Ephemeral, Epiphany, Erotic, Erratic, Erudite, Escalate, Evaporate, Evasive, Evolve, Exasperate, Excite, Exile, Exotic, Experimental, Explicit, Explosive, Exponential, Exquisite, Extraordinary, Extroverted, Exuberant, Fatalistic, Feral, Ferocity, Festive, Fiend, Filthy, Finesse, Flamboyant, Flexible, Flicker, Flippant, Flirt, Foolish, Forceful, Foreshadow, Forgery, Forgiving, Forsaken, Frail, Fraudulent, Freak, Furious, Gadget, Gallivant, Galore, Gamble, Gaudy, Gaunt, Glamorous, Glimmer, Glisten, Gluttonous, Gnarled, Gorgeous, Grace, Gracious, Grandiose, Gravity, Gregarious, Groovy, Grotesque, Grotto, Guile, Guilty, Habituate, Halcyon, Happenstance, Harangue, Harbinger, Heinous, Helix, Hideous, Holistic, Hopeless, Hostage, Hostile, Humiliation, Hustler, Hypnotic, Hypocritical, Hysteria, Idealistic, Idiosyncrasy, Ignoble, Illusion, Imbecile, Implode, Impresario, Impressive, Indefatigable, Ineffable, Innuendo, Insensitive, Insincere, Inspire, Instantiate, Integral, Intense, Introverted, Invincible, Irascible, Jaded, Jealous, Jeopardize, Jocular, Jubilant, Judgmental, Justice, Juxtapose, Kindred, Lacerate, Laconic, Languid, Lascivious, Latitude, Lattice, Lean, Leeward, Legendary, Lethal, Leviathan, Levitate, Lewd, Libertine, Lionize, Loathe, Lofty, Logical, Longing, Loose, Lovely, Lovesick, Loyal, Ludicrous, Lunatic, Lyrical, Macabre, Majestic, Malcontent, Maniacal, Manic, Marathon, Marauder, Martyr, Mendacious, Meticulous, Milieu, Militant, Motivate, Multitude, Munificent, Murderous, Musical, Myopic, Mystery, Mythical, Naïve, Narcotic, Nascent, Nihilist, Notoriety, Nubile, Obliterate, Oblivion, Obscene, Obsess, Obtuse, Offensive, Ominous, Optimistic, Panacea, Pandemonium, Paragon, Paranoid, Pariah, Particle, Passion, Patina, Peculiar, Pedantic, Pensive, Perplex, Petite, Phantasmagorical, Philistine, Phobic, Pithy, Pitiful, Plethora, Poised, Potent, Pragmatic, Prankster, Precise, Predatory, Prelude, Prescient, Pretentious, Prodigy, Profane, Profound, Proletariat, Promiscuous, Provocative, Psychedelic, Psychotic, Pundit, Quintessence, Radical, Random, Reactionary, Reductionist, Reflect, Refract, Regale, Remiss, Remorse, Repulsive, Residue, Reverberate, Revolutionary, Ribald, Romantic, Rubicon, Salience, Sanguine, Sardonic, Satyr, Savage, Scant, Scintillate, Scourge, Serendipity, Shameless, Simulate, Simultaneous, Sinuous, Slanderous, Sleek, Slight, Smolder, Socialite, Sociopath, Solitude, Sophistry, Specter, Spunky, Stellar, Stoical, Striking, Stunning, Subculture, Sublime, Subliminal, Surreal, Sycophant, Symbiotic, Symbolic, Sympathetic, Synchronicity, Tangible, Tantalize, Tenacious, Tender, Tormented, Torrid, Tragic, Transcend, Translucent, Transpose, Truncate, Unabashed, Urbane, Valence, Vapor, Vaunted, Venomous, Verbose, Vigilant, Vivacious, Void, Voluptuous, Vulgar, Waif, Warped, Whorl, Wild, Wretched, Writhe, Zeal